Latest research has implied that supplying more insulin to people suffering with Type II diabetes cannot solve the problem effectively. Explaining the process by which diabetes occurs, leader of the research team said that diabetes in a condition in which cells are unable to signal the processing of insulin in the body. Effective treatment requires an enhancement of efficiency of cells in order to signal and process insulin. He continued that increasing the amount of insulin in the body is not a solution to diabetes. The study suggests a way that can not only increase the function of insulin the body but also reduce obesity. Based on the research, new drugs can be developed that will play a dual role of reducing diabetes and preventing obesity. PTP1B is the enzyme that plays a major role in regulating the functions of cells with regard to processing of insulin in the body.
PTP1B, which stands for Protein Tyrosine Phosphates, counters the effects of insulin on cell receptor. Insulin is very essential substance in the body since it helps processing carbon dioxides and fats, thus regulating the metabolism rate as well as controlling weight. Similarly, by efficiently processing and digesting fats and carbohydrates, insulin helps in lancing weight. The treatment for diabetes and obesity must include ways in which the effect of cells on insulin is increased. What insulin actually does is bind the surface of the cell and a receptor. The receptor sends signals that help in metabolism of carbohydrates and fats and PTP1B prevents this from taking place effectively. When PTP1B is controlled or suppressed, it has been found that obesity is controlled as well.
It was also found that mice whose PTP1B was blocked were resistant to diabetes. The effects of insulin were enhanced in these mice. Owing to these observations, it has been concluded that if drugs that inhibit the function of PTP1B can be made, then it will be a great progress in treatment of diabetes. This method of treatment can help cells to respond to insulin in a normal way and hence, help in metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. As of now, there is a gap in technology that can help normalize the response of cells to insulin in human beings. A number of problems have arisen in the process of drug development. Technology has to be significantly enhanced to make the mechanism work in humans. The study has created grounds for new research to take place for development of antibodies treatment against PTP1B enzyme.