The details about the complex neurotransmitters flow mechanism between brain cells(neurons) has been uncovered in two studies conducted NY Weill Cornell Medical college.The complex Neurotransmission Machinery now is better understood and the reason behind the flow of brain signals has been uncovered.
Synapthopathies and brain signals
As per the study each single neuron control their synaptic vesicle recycling speed .This synaptic vesicles store the neurotransmitters before release of this signals said Dr. Timothy Ryan (Weill Cornell Medical College). Another study conducted and published by Yale University brought into picture the function of protein in formation of these key storage vesicles flaws. Both these findings shall prove helpful to understand the neurotransmission biomechanics that control of neurotransmission between brain neurons at the synaptic gap.Many neurological disorders like Schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s etc., are considered to be synaptopathies (caused due to flaws in synaptic function) and knowledge based on the studies conducted would help to treat them.
Synaptic vesicle: major role to play
Synaptic vesicles that store neurotransmitters at the synaptic junction.This vesicle merges with the neuron surface at the synapse to deliver the neurotransmitters (brain signals/messages) between cells.Neurotransmitter function is depended on the availability of synaptic vesicle says Dr.Ryan.If the synapse runs short of these vesicles the brain signals transmittance would be hindered.This study concentrated on the speed of vesicle recovery process which inturn will give a better understanding of the speed with which neurons can communicate with each other.The researchers took optical recordings of vesicle recycling speed across 84 different neurons using a tool and found that each cell has its own vesicle recovering speed and the rate varied among different neurons was four fold.Uncovering this mystery will be useful to tackle various neurodegenerative disorder.
Dynamin theroy debunked
The proteins involved in the recovery process was also looked upon and studied. Dynamin (1, 2 an 3) is considered to be important in the formation of vesicles.Earlier it was believed that dynamin 1 was responsible for the membrane fission of synaptic vesicle but when tested on mutated mouse (by yale researchers in 2007 study) the theory was proved wrong as only very little differences was observed in the membrane fission process of synaptic vessel.
In this new study other dynamo proteins 1 and 2 were studied using the same optical method used to calculate the synaptic vessel recovery process.When deprived of dynamin 1 and dynamin 3 the synaptic recovery process is impaired severly. As per the observations its proved that dynamin 3 has a major role to play in the presynaptic function.Even during this deprived condition the retrival process still happened which is thought to be done by dynamin 2 protein(present in tiny quantity in brain), this indicates the contribution of other protein in the biomechanical process.